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    劉魁立:非遺是可共享的 不保護傳統會失掉自己

    2012-4-1 10:53:00

    我很愿意和大家一起就非物質文化遺產進行交流,過去我們沒有聽說還有非物質文化,可是就在這兩三年里,大家對于這樣一個詞匯已經非常熟悉了。

    非物質文化是指人類創造的,不以物質載體形式呈現的東西。我們生在這個世界上,物質僅僅提供給我們一個最基本的生存條件。但人之所以稱其為人,就是因為這些非物質文化在我們身上的體現。

    非遺”是可以共享的

    非物質文化遺產有這樣幾個內容:口頭傳統、表演藝術、社會實踐,這其中既包括儀式節慶活動,又有有關自然和宇宙知識的實踐,最后還有傳統的手工藝。

    非物質文化遺產的一個重要特點,就是它是可以共享的,而物質文化是不能共享的。當我們說,我們大家共同干一杯,你只是喝你那一口,而你那一口喝完了,我就喝不到了。“我住長江頭,君住長江尾,日日思君不見君,共飲長江水”,這僅僅是一個比喻,你喝的那口水,我永遠喝不到。任何物質都是唯一的,因此不可以共享。

    但是我們可以同唱一首歌,共同接受某一種思想,它是可以共享的,而這種共享又不受時空的限制,上一代人的發明,我們到今天還可以繼續把它傳承下去。現在很多人都為遺產打架,是因為它是唯一的,祖上留下來的一個古董,哥哥占有了,弟弟就不能再有。可是祖先留下的一個思想,是哥幾個都可以領悟的。這種東西是不受時空限制的。法國的一個發明可以在中國傳承,中國的一個非物質文化的貢獻,一個結晶,同樣的在英國、法國、德國都可以傳承。

    過去很多人都很憤慨,韓國人申報了所謂端午祭,好像是把我們的東西偷過去了,大家都對此口誅筆伐。暫且不說它的端午祭和我們的端午節完全不是一回事,即使是一回事,這種非物質文化的共享性不正彰顯了文化本身的力量嗎?不正說明我們中華文化的強大威力嗎?

    提倡多樣性復興民族文化

    現在整個世界變成了一個地球村,彼此之間文化的交流變得特別頻繁,這個時候強勢文化就常常成為標準。在這樣的情況下,強勢的一些國家可能不斷地推行自己的文化,并壓制其他民族的文化,各個發展中國家就需要有自己的聲音,就需要改變自己現在世界格局中相對弱勢的文化地位。所以才提出了非物質文化遺產的保護,才在世界范圍里提倡民族文化的復興,提倡文化的多樣性。

    去年中國民俗學會和美國民俗學會之間有許多交往,美國民俗學會的會長來到中國后,我問他,你們美國為什么不參加非物質文化遺產保護公約?為什么不參加人類文化的多樣性發展公約?

    他笑了笑說:“我們美國有一個毛病,常常是把我們喜歡的事情說得天花亂墜,把我們不喜歡的事情妖魔化,把它打扮成魔鬼。”他說也許在這兩個條約上,美國人有一種傾向,即不大喜歡人類文化的多樣性發展,因為如果這樣的話,推行美國的生活方式和思維方式就不那么容易了。

    不保護傳統會失掉自己

    非物質文化遺產不是精英文化,而是我們廣大民眾日常生活須臾不可離開的,是我們普通老百姓的生活方式。但對于這些生活方式,雖然我們天天都在經歷,對它們也非常熟悉,大家卻往往熟視無睹,沒有保護的意識。

    例如,一個人成為了作家,大家都會說了不起。但是一個人會講故事,就不會有人說很了不起。所以今天非物質文化遺產的保護,實際上具有劃時代的意義。它不僅能夠調節我們的自身生活,讓我們有更豐富的生活內容,提升我們生活的幸福感,還對我們民族身份的認同、彼此之間關系的協調,以及與其他民族的文化交流,都具有非常重要的意義。所以對“非遺”的保護不只是我們自己的事,同時也是整個人類的事。假定我們今天不再關注自己的傳統文化,也許我們真的就會失掉自己。

    以節日而論,現在許多年輕人要表達自己的情感,總要找到時間和空間,而我們本國的傳統無法提供這個時間和空間的話,他們就會把目光投向國外。于是情人節、愚人節都跟著進來了,但實際上這些節日對年輕人并沒有特殊的意義。(劉魁立)

    來源:齊魯晚報 

     
     
     
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