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    王福州:賡續傳統 修復生態——中國非物質文化遺產保護這五年

    2017-9-19 11:02:00

    制圖:蔡華偉

    縱觀非遺在中國誕生、發展與成熟的過程,非遺并沒有簡單復制搬用物質遺產的保護模式,而是始終秉持習近平總書記倡導的賡續傳統修復生態的文化發展戰略,以中辦國辦《優秀傳統文化傳承發展的指導意見》為契機,以遺產項目和傳承人為抓手,依托傳承體系,有條不紊地層層推進。以《中華人民共和國非物質文化遺產法》頒布實施為標志,中國非遺已構建起完善的制度體系、管理體系和傳承體系,探索并形成了非遺保護的中國經驗。

      扎根民族傳統

      非遺作為傳統文化精髓,烙有傳統和民族的印記,同時非遺又存在于現實中,被賦予鮮明的時代特色。當下我們強調以愛國主義為根本的民族精神和以改革為實質的時代精神,都離不開非遺中蘊含的中國精神。全球化浪潮使人類的精神文明、物質追求、社會審美向多樣化發展,但是非遺蘊含的文化、哲學、道德、倫理等精神內核已成為不同國家民族定位自身的基礎,也成為國家競爭力的重要內容和深層體現。中國非遺致力賡續文化傳統,修復文化生態,是復興中國精神的保障。

      貢獻中國智慧。與傳統經史子集中的系統性、知識性、集中性的思想智慧不同,非遺集民族的文化基因和思維密碼于一體,無論表演藝術、還是手工制作,都是通過技藝的形式表達出具體、準確、直觀的民間智慧。從剝絲抽繭到著色暈染;從樸實民間作坊到典雅的云宋蜀錦;從原始素樸的制陶到巧奪天工的紫砂;從草編柳編到木雕金石;從筆墨紙硯到琴棋書畫;從木偶皮影到目連花鼓;從船工號子快板琴聲到京昆評越等等,都體現著華夏多民族的文化特色和中國智慧。

      實現中國原創。“以古人之規矩,開自己之生面”,今天中國非遺面對浩瀚的非遺資源,以原創藝術品形式對傳統文化經典持續進行新的藝術表達,藝術門類豐富,創作風格多樣,上演了精彩好戲。登記注冊的5000多家非遺小微企業,依托四級名錄體系認定的1372個國家級非遺項目和13087個省級非遺項目,初步形成了產業化規模,成為非商業邏輯下實現中國原創的堅實保障。同時為適應現代生活和未來發展,100個國家級和653個省級生產性保護研究示范基地,讓有共同觀念和相似經歷的文化譜系相互融合,提高審美引領風尚。傳統文化元素被巧妙地融于作品,計白當黑、虛實相間、陰陽互補,成為中國原創的代表。

      引領價值取向。非遺傳承人不僅是國家的文化瑰寶,并且是一個民族的知識、技能等文化遺產的重要承載者,個體承載的豐厚學養、傳承功底、創新實踐、高尚品格,特別是人生觀、世界觀和文化信仰的形成過程,具有典型性和示范性。1986名國家級非遺傳承人、14928名省級非遺傳承人,以及龐大的市級、縣級非遺傳承人群,以自身生命匍匐、行為模范,從理念、智慧、氣度、神韻等方面引領社會生活價值取向,形成符合民族審美特色的精神高地。

      建構文化生態

      文化生態的保護關乎傳統文化傳承弘揚的效果。遵循習近平總書記倡導的環保、低碳、綠色的科學發展理念,五年來中國非遺保護由文化生態實驗區進而擴展至全國,探索建構符合中國國情的人文生態、自然生態和文化生態。

      聚焦人文生態。營造良好人文生態環境,是非遺項目能夠實現順利傳承發展的重要條件。首先積極把握《關于實施優秀傳統文化傳承發展的指導意見》的契機,發揮宣傳部門的綜合協調作用,形成黨委統一領導、黨政群協同推進、有關部門各負其責、全社會共同參與的新格局。其次重視傳習設施建設。投資方式上,以國家投資為主,穩步推進民間資本進入;建設類型上,加大功能單一的傳習點、傳習所的數量,適當控制綜合傳習中心建設,形成縱橫交錯的傳習網絡。三是將非遺傳習設施納入公共文化服務體系。充分利用各地博物館、文化館、科技館、展覽館,讓非遺走入公眾視野。

      修復自然生態。非遺存在于生活和現實中,特別依賴自然環境、人文環境和社會環境,且彼此間有著天然的互相依存共生關系。如各地文廟、廟宇、寺院、古建、廣場等物質文化遺產資源,是各地方舉行重要民俗活動的主要場所,也是如傳統戲劇、民間舞蹈、體育雜技等非遺賴以生存的空間,這些場所的存廢關系非遺項目的推廣、傳播和發展。

      由于環境的改變,時代的變遷,非遺項目賴以生存的自然環境發生了改變,加強自然生態建設勢在必行。中國非遺保護進行了扎實有效的探索。比如山西依托晉中生態文化實驗區,將陳醋釀造技藝、中醫藥炮制技藝、汾酒釀造技藝等非遺項目,與生態區內的古村落和老街建設統籌考慮,非遺項目周邊的環境治理和污染防治綜合施策,戲曲曲藝類項目與當地民俗全方位融合,使非遺傳承的內在根據和外部環境得以更好的維系。當地政府還加大對生態區內國家森林公園、濕地公園及國家級自然保護區等自然環境的綜合保護與修復,使天更藍,山更綠,水更清。

      建構文化生態。五年來中國非遺保護以建構文化生態為己任,交出了一份沉甸甸的答卷。自2006年文化部創設閩南文化生態保護實驗區,先后設立21個國家級文化生態保護實驗區,福建、江蘇、浙江等省區以此為參照,全國相繼設立了300多個省區級文化生態保護實驗區。文化生態實驗區對人文生態、自然生態和社會生態進行綜合修復,突出地方文化特色,培育“遺產豐富、氛圍濃厚、特色鮮明、民眾受益”的文化生態。非遺融入生活和文創,數千名四級名錄傳承人既傳續技藝,又熏染人格;地方民俗融入核心價值觀教育,增強了文化存續力;非遺文化融入公共事業服務體系,生態區密布的傳習點、傳習所和傳習中心,已形成龐大的非遺網絡體系,增強了非遺傳播力。

      光大中國經驗

      自2012年始,中國非遺領域率先在傳統技藝、美術、中醫藥炮制和飲食文化類非遺中探索實行生產性保護,并取得良好的社會影響和效益,被聯合國教科文組織締約國譽為非遺保護的中國經驗。

      弘揚工匠精神。生產性保護的實質是讓非遺直面市場,生產中增強自我造血機能,逐步擺脫依賴和束縛。當下非遺作為資源同樣面臨供給側結構改革,作為精神資源的供給者,強調經濟效益的同時,更多強調的是社會效益。五年來,我們始終把目光聚集非遺傳承人。首先讓他們擔當工匠精神的引路先鋒。從2012年開始我們實施了《傳承人搶救性記錄工程》,分批次分門類對年滿60周歲的傳承人實施記錄,重點記錄傳承人選徒帶徒的眼光、人格塑造的過程和精神技藝的表達。其次將工匠“一絲不茍精益求精”的工作態度貫穿于藝術生產的全鏈條。我們將“振興傳統工藝”列入了國家“十三五”發展規劃,出臺了《中國傳統工藝振興計劃》,賦予非遺時代精神和價值內涵。

      擴大文化傳播。非遺作為傳統文化精髓,表現為中華文化獨一無二的理念、智慧、氣度和神韻,更是信念、情感和磅礴力量。非遺文化從靈魂至深處指引、滋養、塑造中華民族的文化人格,成為我們的“骨肉血”“精氣神”,堅定我們的信仰和意志,讓我們無論走多遠、無論經歷多少磨難都不會失去精神家園。在內部,倚重傳承人、工美大師等文化精英,充當先進文化酵母,搭建系列平臺、通過各種傳播方式,以闡釋中華文化的歷史淵源、發展脈絡、基本走向,闡明傳統文化是中華文化的基本構成,是聯動港澳臺以及中華各民族兒女的“根”與“魂”,是建設中國特色社會主義的實踐之需,是構建有中國底蘊、中國特色的思想體系、學術體系和話語體系的支持和保障。對外,則依托海外中國文化中心、孔子學院助推傳統文化國際傳播,向世界展示中華遺產的豐富性。

      完善中國經驗。截至目前,我國已有39項非遺入選聯合國教科文組織名錄,位列締約國首位。生產性保護是中國遺產領域在整體性保護、科學保護和依法保護基礎上審慎推出的,中國經驗的核心是項目自身得到保護,同時得到傳承且社會效益明顯,非遺保護的中國經驗迅即得到傳播和推廣。在新的時代背景下,緊緊圍繞核心價值理念,闡發中國傳統美德、人文精神,形成從個體、群體到公眾的社會聯動行為,由文化自覺、自信到堅實的文化信仰,最終凝聚內化為民族的文化精神。

      “求木之長者,必固其根本;欲流之遠者,必浚其泉源”。在社會發展的新格局中,傳統文化的基礎滋養、源頭活水和精神引領作用日益顯現,中國非遺應該繼續擔當傳承發展的生力軍,以整體思維和戰略眼光,重視改善社會環境和建構文化生態,不斷完善非遺保護的中國經驗。

    (作者:中國藝術研究院副院長、中國非物質文化遺產保護中心副主任)

    來源:中國非物質文化遺產保護中心、人民日報

     
     
     
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