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    朝戈金:從傳承到傳播 朝向“互聯網+”時代的共同行動

    2017-9-19 10:54:00

     

    9月15日,由中央網信辦和中國文化部共同主辦的“喜迎十九大·文脈頌中華”非物質文化遺產大型網絡傳播活動在京啟動。該活動為期兩周,是在全國范圍內大規模開展的非遺網絡傳播活動。它既是我國作為聯合國教科文組織《保護非物質文化遺產公約》締約國,向國際社會鄭重承諾合理、有效地保護非物質文化遺產的公眾實踐活動,也是《中華人民共和國非物質文化遺產法》實施五年來在非遺領域展開的又一項重要措施,因而意義深遠。

    中國社會科學院學部委員、中國民俗學會會長朝戈金

    公約強調,締約國應努力采取一切適當的手段,運用教育和信息計劃,以及能力建設活動和非正規知識傳播手段,確保非物質文化遺產得到確認、尊重和弘揚。在公約的《操作指南》中明確強調“在適當情況下充分利用信息和傳播技術”,并在“傳播和媒體”一節中提出了若干具體建議,包括“運用各種傳媒形式傳播非物質文化遺產”、“鼓勵信息技術機構推動信息的互動交流,強化非物質文化遺產的非正規傳承途徑”等。其中值得注意的是,鼓勵針對年輕人這一目標群體設計和制作互動式參與項目等。在我國的《非遺法》和相關政策法規和制度設計中,也有含義相同的條款和精神,鼓勵社會力量參與非遺保護,通過各種有效恰當的手段,弘揚我國各民族人民在長期的歷史發展進程中創造和發展的非物質文化遺產,并在當代生活中確保代際傳承。

    新技術的飛速發展,給我們的生活帶來了翻天覆地的變化。我們該如何在“互聯網+”時代順勢而為,在各行業各部門之間形成非遺保護的合力,是一個巨大的挑戰。今年八月初在比利時列日召開了“首屆世界人文大會”,我在開幕式致辭時曾說道:“我們誠摯地欣喜于科技的進步,因為它帶來了與以往很不同的知識生產、傳播和應用的景觀。大數據、海量存儲、便捷搜索等,帶來新的學術維度和新的生長點。英特網在全球瞬間傳遞思想和代碼,極大地刺激了不同領域之間前所未有的廣泛合作……我們堅信,自然科學和人文社會科學的合作和互補,必將有利于人類的長久福祉。”

    今天,我們見證了科技與人文攜手合作的生動實踐。國內的眾多大型互聯網公司積極參與了這個用網絡傳播非物質文化遺產的活動。在互聯網的平臺上,非物質文化遺產的方方面面——其歷史軌轍、現實遭際、地方知識、美學品格、傳承規律、實踐方式、社會功能、文化意義等,將通過用以往的傳播手段所難以比擬的廣度和速度,傳播到數量巨大的網絡用戶中。過去,非物質文化遺產作為老百姓的文化實踐,主要以口耳相傳、言傳身教的方式,在代際之間縱向傳承,短時間內跨越巨大空間的橫向傳播,就不太多見。今天,在互聯網平臺上,音聲、文字、影像、超文本鏈接、云技術等,可以承載著非物質文化遺產內容遍地傳揚。與此同時,每個用戶的能動作用也被放大和增強,他們不再是被動的信息接受者和消費者,而且還可能成為信息的補充、修正乃至再創造的參與者。一個彼此聯系緊密、高度合作的多元行動方正在聚攏;人們能動地、富有成效地、以彼此協作的方式,共同推動著非物質文化遺產“數字共同體”的逐步形成。每個希望保護非物質文化遺產的有識之士,都會欣喜地看到中華民族優秀的文化遺產以前所未有的規模和速度得以傳播和推廣。為此,我們應當感謝眾多社會力量、互聯網行業及專業人士的參與和奉獻,沒有責任感和使命感,就不會有這樣的共同行動。讓我們為之鼓掌歡呼!

    唯物辯證法告訴我們,任何事物都有兩面性。在我們為互聯網的飛速發展歡呼的時候,也要時刻提醒自己關注另外一方面的效應。譬如,非物質文化遺產的主體是人。離開人就無法確保非遺的存續力。在虛擬空間中大規模傳播社會實踐、觀念表述、表現形式、知識和技能,最終要落到具體人身上,并最終要由這些非遺的持有者代代相傳,方能賡續和發展。人是文化的主體,在互聯網上如何體現人的地位和作用,如何讓年輕一代成為后繼者和接班人,這就是新的問題。再比如:在互聯網上共享是容易了,某些類型實踐者的生存空間是不是會受影響?這就需要研究。國外已經有相關案例報道:說電臺廣播一方面在普及相關非物質文化遺產方面作用很大,另一方面卻讓某些傳承人的演述機會減少了。

    如今,互聯網讓分享這些音視頻信息易如反掌。那么,如何保障相關社區、群體和個人的合法權益,讓他們也能從這種大規模傳播中獲益,也是一個涉及倫理的新問題,需要認真思考解決辦法。正如聯合國教科文組織《保護非物質文化遺產倫理原則》所述,“創造非物質文化遺產的社區、群體或個人應從源于這類遺產的精神利益和物質利益的保護中受益”。再者,非物質文化遺產的實踐活動往往與特定的時間、空間和文化傳統緊密相連,網絡呈現時,需要盡力縮小技術呈現方式的局限性,因為“去語境化”會或多或少遮蔽非遺的人文價值。此外,互聯網的規模效應也會放大商業的力量,是否會因此帶來某些非遺項目的過度商業化和商品化傾向,也需要提早警覺。

    總之,非物質文化遺產既是文化多樣性的熔爐,也是可持續發展的保證。傳播和信息技術的日新月異,線上和線下、虛擬和實有、旁觀和操演、順應時代潮流和堅守人文價值、推動固本創新和抵制歪曲誤用,在所有這些維度上,都要有審慎的考量和精準的拿捏,才能進一步做好非物質文化遺產保護工作。

    來源:中國非物質文化遺產保護中心、新華網

     
     
     
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    地址:南昌市站前西路121號南昌古玩城滕王樓三樓  電話:0791-86231235
    CopyRight © 江西省非物質文化遺產研究保護中心.All Rights Reserved
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