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    若非鄉土,如何非遺

    2017-9-11 16:50:00

        鄉土社會是中國傳統社會的基本特征,也是我們對近現代中國的基本認知。在城鎮化進程如火如荼的今日,“鄉土”依然是中國社會難以摘除的標簽。非物質文化遺產作為中華優秀傳統文化在當今的遺存,與鄉土社會有著千絲萬縷的聯系。流傳于民間社會的傳說、史詩、民謠、舞蹈、戲曲、雜技、手工技藝、民俗等諸多非物質文化遺產,都烙上了深刻的鄉土印記。可以說,中國非物質文化遺產是植根于鄉土社會的文化形態。

        城鎮化改變著中國社會的結構形貌,將鄉土中國推向現代化、城市化、商業化。非物質文化遺產在這種劇烈的結構性變革中走向了不同的道路。有些依賴于村落社區的非物質文化遺產項目,隨著傳統村落格局的改變和村民的流失,失去生存空間,逐漸被人們淡忘拋棄;有些則在城鎮和商業化環境中尋求到新的發展空間,獲得了新的生機,但是卻必然要付出削足適履的代價,以迎合人們對商業價值的需求。在這個過程中,非物質文化遺產不得不轉變它們的功能,從實用的到審美的,從神圣的到世俗的,從儀式的到娛樂的。比如,作為民間習俗產物的剪紙、年畫,如今成為裱入相框的藝術品;民間祭祀活動成為電視直播秀;民俗儀式成為旅游項目。拋棄原有的功能,植入現代社會所需的新功能,也許更符合現代社會的需求,但作為非物質文化遺產,卻早已偏離了其原有的文化內涵。這種改變,不僅是形式的變更,更是民族文化認同的重構。這種改變之下,人們的觀念是否緊密相隨?人們的情感和價值是否重新找到定位?

        以廣西壯族三月三歌墟和南寧國際民歌藝術節為例。三月三歌墟本是廣西壯族自治區人民在農歷三月三舉行的以對歌為主的民俗活動,是與壯民族古代祭神儀式相關聯的文化遺存。南寧自1999年秋季開始舉辦“國際民歌藝術節”,以舞臺藝術和鄉野歌墟相結合的方式呈現民歌藝術,在文化市場獲得了成功。這種模式極大地推廣了壯族民歌,但同時也存在割裂民歌與原始祭神儀式的深層文化邏輯,使得壯族民歌成為一種純粹的演藝活動,使民俗儀式感大為削弱的危險。

        在多年的非物質文化遺產保護實踐中,人們對鄉村非物質文化遺產的保護主要著眼于單一項目的保護,傾向于將其抽離出鄉村社會,實行“去鄉土化”保護,比如將該項目的傳承人工作室集中于統一建造的文化園、博覽園或者作為旅游景點的歷史文化保護區域等場所,完全割裂了非物質文化遺產與其生存發展的文化生態環境的關聯,使其處于“碎片化”狀態。其實,非物質文化遺產所處的社會文化環境為其生存發展的土壤。離開土壤,它必將成為無本之木,無源之水。在保護非物質文化遺產的過程中,需要將非物質文化遺產及其所處的自然、人文環境進行整體性保護視為基本原則,注重文化生態環境的維護和修復,使非物質文化遺產能夠在原有的生存環境中自然地發展、變遷。

        為了加強對非物質文化遺產與文化生態環境的整體保護,我國不斷強化對文化生態保護區和傳統村落等區域性文化遺產的綜合保護,強調非物質文化遺產與環境的整體性。在被納入保護名錄的村落中,非物質文化遺產可以在傳統村落里安靜生長。然而,我國還有多如繁星的非物質文化遺產,分布在沒有被納入保護的普通村落和鄉村社會中,它們的現狀和未來還需要得到持續的關注和積極的探索。(來源:中國文化報)

     

     

     
     
     
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